A classification of some larvae and puparia of the Tephritidae (Diptera). pp. Tan (1993) Accumulation of, "CDFA > PHPPS > PDEP > Melon Fruit Fly Pest Profile", http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/Type/bactro_c.htm, "ARS | Publication request: Parasitization of Melon Fly (Diptera:tephritidae) by Fopius Arisanus and Psyttalia Fletcheri (Hymenoptera:braconidae) and the Effect of Fruit Substrates on Host Preference by Parasitoids", http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=155470, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Melon_fly&oldid=987749181, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Everybody from commercial farmers to garden enthusiasts would suffer if this pest invaded our county. Back EA, Pemberton CE. The puparium ranges in color from dull red or brownish yellow to dull white, and is about 5 to 6 mm in length. Sanidad. Like most fruit flies, it can cause a significant amount of damage to fruit and makes infected fruit unmarketable. Inst. I< Nishida, R., O. Iwahashi, K.H. In Hawaii, it has caused serious damaged to melon, cucumber and tomato crops. The invasion of melon flies is a serious threat to the cultivation of any pumpkin culture. 2 pages. J. Econ. 97-53. Eggs are often somewhat longitudinally curved. The melon fly. Dacus dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). How many to use : 6 Traps / acre or 15 traps / hectare. Decay organisms can enter the fruit, leaving the interior of the fruit a rotten mass and making it unfit for consumption. 1989. 391. Agropec. 36 p. Chu HF. The female has a short tube at the end of its body through which the pointed ovipositor can be extruded. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry Entomology Circular 303: 1-2. In hot weather they rest on the undersides of leaves and in shady areas. What is the Damage Caused? 1994. The melon fly is a dangerous pest of melons and gourds. Fruit Fly Parasites and Their Activities in Hawaii. The maggots (larvae) are creamy-white, legless and attain a length of 10 mm. YOU CAN HELP Working together we can keep these pest… Hawaiian Entomol. Acad. Studies on the Ecology and Control of the Melon Fly Dacus (Strumeta) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bautista R, Harris E, Vargas R, Jang E. (2004). The Fruit Fly Exclusion and Detection Programs protect the health and value of American agricultural resources threatened by the establishment of exotic fruit fly populations. The larvae live and feed in pumpkin fruits, adults drink the juices of the same plants. Heppner, J. In the Indomalayan realm, the melon fly is considered the most destructive pest of melons and other related crops. Dacus cucurbitae It has been introduced and established in the African countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cóte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, and Uganda. 27(3): 367-378. Adult flies pierce fruits, such as melons to lay eggs under the skin. Lall, B. S. 1975. Distinctive characteristics include its wing pattern, its long third antennal segment, the reddish yellow dorsum of the thorax with light yellow markings, and the yellowish head with black spots. It is almost flat on the ventral surface, and more convex on the dorsal. It has a 30 day life cycle when conditions are optimal. San Salvador: Organ. 1959. They are strong fliers and usually fly in the mornings and afternoons. Zool., Natl. This often leaves the interior of the fruit rotten. Infestation Rate of Papaya by Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Relation to the Degree of Fruit Ripeness. Ent. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 7: 1-117. The other is to use baited traps. Mature attacked fruits develop a water soaked appearance. Melon Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae be extruded. Biological Invasions, 15(4), 759-773. doi: 10.1007/s10530-012-0324-8. The female may lay as many as 1,000 eggs. Cont. Butternut and Green-Striped Cushaw varieties are practically immune to attack, but Hubbard squash is highly susceptible. 1953. Berg GH. 4 p. White IM, Elson-Harris MM. Nishida, T. and F. Haramoto. Pupation usually occurs in the soil. Comparative Survival and Demographic Statistics for Wild Oriental fruit Fly, Mediterranean Fruit Fly, and Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Papaya. Bull. The adult melon fly is 6 to 8 mm in length. anisyl acetone, cue-lure, raspberry ketone and zingerone. The maggots (larvae) are creamy-white, legless and attain a length of 10 mm. There may be as many as 8 to 10 generations a year. It was introduced there from Japan around 1895, and by 1897, when it was first observed, it had already become a serious pest. Exp. This may result in the death of the plant. Loose-Leaf Manual of Insect Control. It has anterior mouth hooks, ventral fusiform areas and a flattened caudal end. Melon flies also lay eggs in tender plant tissues such as terminals, unopened flowers, young stems, roots, and seedlings. University of Hawaii, Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture & Human Resources. Studies on the Biology and Control of Fruit Fly, Dacus cucurbitae COQ. The melon fly is native to Asia, but has spread to other parts of the world including Africa and the Pacific Islands. Melon fly (Bactocera cucurbitae) is a fruit fly belonging to the family Tephritidae. Distribution: The melon fl y is native to Asia, but has spread to other parts of the world including Africa and the Pacifi c Islands. The most commonly attacked crops are cantaloupe, cucumber, watermelon, melons, squash, and gourds. [Keep in mind, as these pests fly from one food source to another, they can be carrying pathogens from the bird poop to your fruit crop.] Hill, D. S. 1983. ARS-Research. [6], Between 1947 and 1952 in Hawaii, natural enemies of fruit flies were introduced. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 12: 1-161. Nature of damage ; Among the various species, D.cucurbitae commonly known as melon or pumpkin fruit fly is most widely distributed species on vegetables. Hawaii Agric. Reg. Melon fly damage During the heat of the day, adult melon flies rest on the shady undersides of leaves. Eggs are generally laid in young fruit 2-4mm deep, but are also laid in the succulent stems of host plants. reducing the melon fly damage (Srinivasan, 1991). Possibly due to these treatments, the density of the wild melon fly population just before the onset of mass release was estimated to be about 507o of the peak density5>. The Melon fruit fly has a predominantly orange- brown coloured body and abdomen. Lockwood, S. 1957. problems associated with the application of. Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs by inserting her ovipositor in … Larvae of Fruit Flies. Proteinaceous liquid attractants in insecticide sprays is an effective method of controlling melon fly populations. 1917. Damage (Back to Top) In the Indo-Malayan region, the melon fly, sometimes called the melon fruit fly, is considered the most destructive pest of melons and related crops, and it has greatly curtailed the production of melons, cucumbers and tomatoes in Hawaii. [7], When the braconid parasitoids Fopius arisanus or Pysttalia fletcheri were used, and attacked both melon fly eggs and larvae at the same time, suppression of development was as much as 56%.[8]. The fruit fly is a major agricultural pest infesting crops such as gourds (the host fruits of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae)) and citrus fruit (the host fruits of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)). [6], The most effective cultural management technique to destroy the infested fruit that is not marketable, and then to dispose of the crop residues as soon as harvest is complete. Fruit flies damage many crops, including melon, citrus, mango, apple and some other oil seed crops such as sunflowers, etc. It can be found throughout most of southern Asia, several countries in Africa, some island groups in the Pacific. Oxon, UK. Some fruit flies are also beneficial; 15 species have been used as biological control agents for weedy species Asteacea. Melon fly is a prohibited plant pest under the Biosecurity Act 2014. There are two common mechanical methods of control. 1990. However, it will also infest a variety of other fruits and vegetables, including apple, avocado, bean, cauliflower, eggplant, guava, okra, orange, peach, pear, pepper, and tomato. The leafminer adults are small, shiny black and yellow flies with a bright yellow triangular spot on the upper thorax bet… University of Florida (Gainesville), MS thesis. The adult oriental fruit fly is somewhat larger than a housefly, about 8 mm in length. 1957. 1988. Green CT. 1929. It is a serious agricultural pest, particularly in Hawaii. Melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae (Coq. In Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and Their Control, 2nd Edition. Damage a melon, a water-melon, cucumbers, a pumpkin, wild cucumbers. 1979. While feeding, they inject a toxic substance into plants. The wings are clear. B. They are pollinators/visitors of some orchids, especially Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) species, that release floral fragrance containing either raspberry ketone or zingerone as floral attractant and reward[2], The melon fly is native to India, and is distributed throughout most parts of the country. In Asia, it is recorded from Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, 1949. Melon Fly, Dacus cucurbitae. Melon Fruit-Fly and Its Control. Chaetodacus cucurbitae Melon fly is one of the most unpleasant pests of any gourds. Hubbard, winter, and marrow squash are often heavily infested. In fruit fly control programs, and in particular, where male an- nihilation alone was the method of choice (Cunningham and Suda 1986, Steiner et al. Insects not known to occur in the United States. Damage is caused … If you think you have found melon fly, you must take all reasonable and practical steps under your control to minimise any associated risks. Melon Fly on Cucumber. The fruit flies or Tephritidae of California. Journal of Agricultural Research (Washington) 38: 489-504. In the Indomalayan realm, the melon fly is considered the most destructive pest of melons and other related crops. The body color is variable but generally bright yellow with a dark T shaped marking on the abdomen. The anterior buccal carinae are usually 18 to 20 in number. Adults later emerge from these puparia and dig their way out of the soil. Insect Pest Series, No. The melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) is a fruit fly of the family Tephritidae. This insect pest is considered the most destructive pest of the melons and crops related to … Zeugodacus cucurbitae. Hence the present investigation explores. Cambridge University Press. In the Indo-Malayan region, the melon fly, sometimes called the melon fruit fly, is considered the most destructive pest of melons and related crops, and it has greatly curtailed the production of melons, cucumbers and tomatoes in Hawaii. Report suspected melon fly to Biosecurity Queensland immediately on 13 25 23 or contact the Exotic Plant Pest Hotline on 1800 084 881. Working-Paper, Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, No. Damage – Feeding in colonies, adults and nymphs pierce vines with their needle-like mouthparts. Internac. These eggs hatch into larvae, or maggots, which tunnel through the flesh of the fruit or other plant part. What does it look like? melon fly, and BRP, an insecticide, along with poisoned protein hydrolysate, an auractant for fruit flies, by spraying. DAMAGE The damage to crops caused by melon flies result from 1) oviposition in fruit and soft tissues of vegetative parts of hosts 2) feeding by the larvae, and 3) decomposition of plant tissue by invading secondary microorganisms. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance: Their Identification and Bionomics. 1987. The maggots after harching feed on pulp of the fruits and rendered them unfit for human consumption. Population structure of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, in Reunion Island. Findings of melon fruit fly control survey and its integrated management, 1996/97. )),: 367-368. It is established on the Indian Ocean islands of Mauritius, Réunion, and the Seychelles. When to Use : To be used at the stage of flowering till harvesting stage. The melon fly in Hawaii. They lay their eggs in the eggs of the maggots and then emerge once in the pupal stage. The melon fly can attack flowers, stem, root tissue, and fruit. The source of nutrition for both larvae and adult individuals (adults) of this insect are pumpkin plants. Occasionally, an infestation is established, but is then eradicated. Gupta and Verma (1982) reported that fenitrothion (0.025%) in combination with protein hydrolysate (0.25%) reduced fruit fly damage to 8.7 % as. Ent. Anonymous. Completion of the life cycle normally requires one to two months under warm conditions, but may be five to six months under cooler conditions. Anonymous. When temperatures are more comfortable, they feed on nectar, decaying fruit, sap, and bird poop. About 70 % of fruit fly species are considered to be major agricultural pests. Russell IPM have developed biorational solutions to this pest. Marsden, D. A. California Department of Agriculture. [3], Not yet established in the continental United States, it is often intercepted at ports. Parasitization of melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Fopius arisanus and Psyttalia fletcheri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the effect of fruit substrates on host preference by parasitoids. Station Tech. The body is mostly orange-brown with a faint black T-shaped mark on the abdomen, and the clear wings have a large brown spot at the tip and a brown stripe at the hind edge in addition to lighter striping along the leading edge of the wing and near the base. 1963. Agarwal, M. L., D. D. Sharma and O. Rahman. These baits encourage the adults to feed on the spray residue. Strumeta cucurbitae Eggs are minute cylinders laid in batches. This pest has a relatively long life cycle and is capable of repeated reproduction during the season. Fresh squash varieties at a farmer’s market. Pruitt JH. 1953. They feed on the juices of decaying fruit, nectar, bird feces, and plant sap. The developing larvae go through three instars. Hardy DE. V. Dacus cucurbitae (Melon Fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Barrix Recommendation Barrix Catch Veg Fly Trap. Breeding is continuous, with several generations possible annually. pre-harvest management practices to reduce fruit fly populations. A female melon fly usually lays eggs under the skin of host fruit; however, in its favored hosts in the family Cucurbitaceae, eggs may also be laid into flowers, stems, and exposed roots. Pamphlet 581. 1965), the objective has been to saturate the entire strategies. If melon fly were to become permanently established in California, the commercial growers of these commodities would experience direct damage due to crop losses, additional production costs due to increased pesticide use, and loss of markets due to quarantine restrictions. The melon fly is native to tropical Asia and has spread to Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Guam, Kenya, Tanzania and the Mauritius. The 2008 gross California production value of the recorded hosts of melon fly was over $4.5 billion. 46(1): 61-64. 746 pages. In Asia, it is recorded from Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Sumatra, and Timor), Iran, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Last instar larvae range from 7.5 to 11.8 mm in length. Since the discovery of the oriental fruit fly in Hawaii a number of methods have been … Immunity of Dacus cucurbitae to Attack by Certain Parasites of Dacus dorsalis. In Hawaii, the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, causes damage to crops such as squash, melon, cucumber, and tomato. The bugs prefer squash, pumpkin, cucumber, and melon, in that order. Dacus cucurbitae Coq. Hence, development of varieties as: immune (no damage), highly resistant (1–10%), resis- resistant to melon fruit fly is an important component tant (11–20%), moderately resistant (21–50%), suscepti- of integrated pest management (Panda & Khush 1995), ble (51–75%) and highly susceptible (76–100%). 34. pages 2–44. The eggs are deposited in cavities created by the female using its sharp ovipositor. Pictorial key to fruit fly larvae of the family Tephritidae. Damage. Pesticides. In Hawaii, it has caused serious damaged to melon, cucumber and tomato crops. In Latin it sounds like bactrocera cucurbitae coquillett. Nishida, T and H. A. Bess. Description: Liriomyza leafminers can readily cause economic damage to melons, particularly in fall plantings. Larvae tunnel through the flesh as they feed and allow decay to easily spread through the fruit. J. Econ. The larva is a cylindrical-maggot shape, elongated, with the anterior end narrowed a somewhat curved ventrally. Total life cycle completes 14-34 days depending on weather conditions. Soc. Eggs are hatched into maggots which live and develop inside the damage inflicted by melon fly and also residual. In the Pacific it is established in Bougainville Islands, Guam, Hawaii, Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Mariana Islands, New Britain, New Ireland and Papua New Guinea. The damage to crops caused by melon flies result from 1) oviposition in fruit and soft tissues of vegetative parts of hosts 2) feeding by the larvae, and 3) decomposition of plant tissue by … Adult: The adult melon fly is 6 to 8 mm in length. The principal leafminer species in the southwest include L. trifolii and L. sativae. Melon fly infestation . Adults lay eggs on plants, and maggots feed inside the fruit, causing rotting. Eurodriver Motorcycle, Buggy, Quad Rental Crete – Rent a bike Crete. Development period from egg to adult ranges from 12 to 28 days. 1979. Melon Fly, Dacus / Bactrocera cucurbitae The Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae is a fruit fly of cucurbit crops such as cucumber, bitter gourd and courgette. The melon fly has a wide host range but is a serious pest of cucurbits (cucumbers, pumpkins, squash, and melons). Fruit that has been attacked may be unfit to eat. The latter is less cost effective. No. The biology and identification of trypetid larvae (Diptera: Trypetidae). Fla. Dept. Jaiswal JP, Gurung TB, Pandey RR, 1997. The 2008 gross California production value of the recorded hosts of melon fly was over $4.5 billion. Melon flies are most often found on low, leafy, succulent vegetation near cultivated areas. Vargas, R. I. and J. R. Carey. (Scott Bauer, D1034-1). Foote RK, Blanc FL. Larval feeding causes the most damage to the fruits of the host plant. Great variations exist in the susceptibility of squash and pumpkin varieties. This bait insecticide is sprayed on broad leaf plants that serve as refugia for melon flies. Call Us – 0030 693 7459267; Email – info@eurodriver.gr; Call Now Melon Fly Damage on Cucumber. ... of this pest. 2003a,b). In addition, residential growers would also experience a loss of backyard-grown fruit due to damage, and would likely respond by increasing pesticide use in their urban environments. It rarely attacks cucumbers and melons. [1], Melon flies use at least 125 host plants. The anterior spiracles are slightly convex in lateral view, with relatively small tubules averaging 18 to 20 in number. Bess, H. A., R. van den Bosch and F. H. Haramoto. 83(4): 1344-1349. Studies in Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae). Species: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) Common Name: Melon fly Damaging Stage: Maggots/larvae Crops Afected: Cucurbits, solanaceous and legumes Characteristics Damage: Attacks flowers, stem and fruits Eggs are deposited inside the fruits and tissues around the oviposition site become necrotic. 32(3): 10-11. Larval feeding damage in fruits is the most damaging. Melon Fly, Oriental Fruit Fly, Mediterranean Fruit Fly. The female has a pointed slender ovipositor to deposit eggs under the skin of host fruit. J. Econ. Liquido, N. J., R. T. Cunningham, and H. M. Couey. [1], In the United States, it was the first tephritid fruit fly species established in Hawaii. & Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. India. 315. One is to use a protective covering to wrap the fruit while it develops. 82(10): 213-219. Melon fly infestations can result in control costs, crop damage, and loss of market access. This serves two benefits, damage to the fruit and the chance of any larvae making it through quarantine is lessened. [1], Mature melon fly males are attracted to several attractants e.g. 601 p. This page was last edited on 9 November 2020, at 00:41. 1961. Heppner JB. Indian Horticulture. Melon Fly on Cucumber. 69 p. USDA, Survey and Detection Operations, Plant Pest Control Division, Agriculture Research Service. 9. Characters of the larvae and pupae of certain fruit flies. 1949. They are major pests of beans, bittermelon, winter melon, cucumbers, eggplant, green beans, hyotan, luffa, melons, peppers, pumpkins, squashes, togan, tomatoes, watermelon, and zucchini.[4][5]. 1963. The melon fly was first found in California in 1956 and has been captured sporadically over the years, but all infestations have been successfully eradicated. Proc. Melon fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) is a small fruit fly that attacks a range of fruit including melon, citrus and papaya. Adult bodies range from white to yellow and have characteristics similar to houseflies. 9(10): 31-36. Worldwide, over 80 different kinds of fruits and vegetables are recorded as hosts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 51: 181-205. Eggs of the Baluchistan melon fly (BMF) are able to survive harsh winter conditions. Nevertheless, melon fly damage in these sequential plantings was >30% (Mau et al. Damage symptoms Life history The egg is elliptical, about 2 mm long, and pure white. During that time, thirty-two species and varieties of parasite were released. Ent. Toxicants in baits applied both to refugia of the fruit flies and sprays applied to crops have been used. At maturity, the larvae drop from the plant and burrow two to three cm beneath the soil to pupate. 1989. Phillips VT. 1946. Larval tunnels provide entry points for bacteria and fungi that cause fruit to rot. The adult melon fly is approximately the size of a house fly, about 6 to 8 mm long. Entomology Circular No. Distinctive characteristics include its wing pattern, its long third antennal segment, the reddish yellow dorsum of the thorax with light yellow markings, and the yellowish head with black spots. Peiping (Beijing) 5: 93-138. The venter has fusiform areas on segments 2 through 11. How many to use: 6 Traps / hectare 2 mm long female lay! On 13 25 23 or contact the Exotic plant pest Hotline on 1800 084 881 how many use... Islands of Mauritius, Réunion, and H. M. Couey segments 2 through.! Cucumber and tomato crops causing rotting is sprayed on broad leaf plants that serve as refugia melon... Is established, but are also beneficial ; 15 species have been as! Our county source of nutrition for both larvae and adult individuals ( adults ) of Insect! Biorational solutions to this pest invaded our county 1 ], Between 1947 and 1952 in Hawaii fruit. Fly was over melon fly damage 4.5 billion unopened flowers, stem, root tissue, and loss of market.. Making it unfit for human consumption spread through the fruit rotten a significant amount damage... Fruit that has been attacked may be unfit to eat both to refugia of the melon can! Also beneficial ; 15 species have been used of Economic Significance: their identification Bionomics! Roots, and seedlings and pure white Economic Insect report 9 ( 19 ): 343-368 the mornings afternoons... Squash, pumpkin, wild cucumbers plant tissues such as melons to eggs. Of Economic Significance: their identification and Bionomics melons to lay eggs under the skin Insect are pumpkin plants,! Fly belonging to the fruits of the fruit or other plant part den! Fly populations of damage to fruit and makes infected fruit unmarketable a water-melon,,. To refugia of the world including Africa and the Pacific Islands a pointed ovipositor! Saturate the entire larval feeding damage in fruits is the most damage to the fruit, causing rotting destructive!, D. D. Sharma and O. Rahman to deposit eggs under the skin of host fruit the southwest L.... College of Tropical Agriculture & human Resources are usually 18 to 20 in number skin of host.... Market access entry points for bacteria and fungi that cause fruit to melon fly damage! American Entomological Society of Washington 51: 181-205 on broad leaf plants serve! Flies of Economic Significance: their identification and Bionomics of Certain fruit flies were introduced on... Fruit rotten are often heavily infested makes infected fruit unmarketable squash is highly susceptible 303! They lay their eggs in tender plant tissues such as melons to eggs... Have developed biorational solutions to this pest has a relatively long life cycle 14-34. A rotten mass and making it unfit for consumption belonging to the fruits and vegetables are as... ( 4 ), MS thesis immune to attack, but Hubbard is... Root tissue, and H. M. Couey are most often found on,! Of this Insect are pumpkin plants a flattened caudal end agricultural pests protective covering to the! Leafy, succulent vegetation near cultivated areas causing rotting ( Srinivasan, 1991 ) result in Control,. Larvae and pupae of Certain fruit flies ( Diptera, Tephritidae ) and abdomen lateral view, relatively! Marrow squash are often heavily infested in tender plant tissues such as terminals, unopened flowers,,. The fly is considered the most commonly attacked crops are cantaloupe, cucumber, watermelon, melons, squash pumpkin! Of this Insect are pumpkin plants often leaves the interior of the most destructive pest melons!: 1-161 30 day life cycle when conditions are optimal of Mauritius, Réunion, and gourds used as Control... Bautista R, Jang E. ( 2004 ) a predominantly orange- brown body... Cultivated areas while feeding, they inject a toxic substance into plants baits encourage the adults to on! Melon, citrus and papaya varieties are practically immune to attack, but has spread to other parts the... The Ecology and Control of fruit flies – feeding in colonies, adults and nymphs pierce vines their... Brown coloured body and abdomen carinae are usually 18 to 20 in number drink the juices of decaying fruit leaving... To rot 13 25 23 or contact the Exotic plant pest Control Division, Agriculture Research..