These nine missions, named below, are part of the chain of 21 missions that stretched for 650 miles along California’s El Camino Real (The Royal Road). He was from Majorca in Spain.He was a teacher of philosophy in Spain and Mexico in the 1740s. Founded as the eighth mission (of twenty-one) in California by Spanish missionaries in 1777, it was the first named for a woman – Saint Clare of Assisi – and founded by Franciscan friar Junipero Serra to convert the native tribes to Catholicism. life from the time he was born, where he was trained, what he La Purísima Concepción de María Santísima, Registered with Copyright Safeguard - 2015. It is estimated that during his ministry, St. Junipero Serra baptized about 6,000 native people. He wasn't out there saying, 'Wow, look From this beginning, the cities, roadways and economy of present day California have their source. person and forgiving. Serra established nine missions there from 1769 to 1782. Spain was unable to appoint many men to the region, which the Russians threatened to occupy. The purpose of this page rather is to shed a bit of light for those unfamiliar with his story and the role that Junipero Serra played in the founding of California. Serra is also responsible for the 21 missions that were eventually established. He was born on the Spanish island of Mallorca in 1713 as Miquel Josep Serra Ferrer. Serra’s remains are interred at Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo. Your personal and local guide to Saint Junípero Serra (1713-1784) Often called the “father of the California Missions,” Junípero Serra did more than any other man to advance the Catholic church and beliefs in California. Even after the burning of the mission in get along too well with some of the military people, you know. The statue in the photo above is at Mission San Miguel. Political correctness might dictate a different choice today, but nonetheless, it attests to the undisputed impact that Serra had on the state. In a little-known historical note, Serra took up collections among his parishes to support the American Revolution, and sent the funds to General George Washington. It was created by Jo Mora and dedicated in 1925. The missionaries rebuilt the mission as an army fort. 1776. to the Indians, really, than even to the governors. Birth Place: Town of Petra, Mallorca (Majorca), Spain. He was an indefatigable explorer, organizer and administrator. at all these Indians. The 700-mile-long El Camino Real linked California’s 21 missions, which were founded by Father Junipero Serra and spaced one day’s journey apart by horse. He was born on the Spanish … Under his leadership, the misisons became self-sufficient, and many grew into thriving settlements – the basis for some of California’s most important cities. . come up with a benevolent, hard-working person who was strict to be sure that they were treated fairly. Monuments, statues and plaques throughout the state attest to this fact. San Juan Capistrano. Serra is often criticized for the abuse of the California Indians, and the destruction of their culture under the mission system. San Carlos Borromeo (Carmel) 1771. Place of burial: The sanctuary of Mission Carmel. Father Junipero Serra headed that mission. Serra’s recommended provision was eventually incorporated into California’s first legal code, the Echeveste Reglamento of 1773. . Then will all the markers, place names and monuments begin to make sense to a visitor to Central California. A statue of Father Junipero Serra stands in front of the San Gabriel Mission in San Gabriel, California on September 23, 2015. In 2015 he became the first saint of the Roman Catholic Church to be canonized in the United States. 1772. . In the marble are the Franciscan emblem as well as other motifs. He personally founded nine of California's 21 Spanish missions and served as president of the California missions from 1767 until he died in 1784. He was often required to balance the conflicting demands of the church, the military, and civil authorities (including the Spanish governor). It can be found at the intersection of Artillery and Pacific at one of the entrances of the Presidio of Monterey. Franciscan priest Father Junipero Serra founded the first mission in 1769. They could be beaten or whipped for violating church rules. His attitude was, 'Stay away from the Indians.' It shows three Franciscan friars standing watch, with bronze plaques depicting Serra's life. Junipero Serra is known as the Father of the Missions. These nine missions, named below, are part of the chain of 21 missions that stretched for 650 miles along California’s El Camino Real (The Royal Road) . How Many Missions did Junípero Serra Found? He joined the Franciscan order as a young man and took the name “Junipero” in honor of St. Juniper, a companion of St. Francis of Assisi. This was known as Mission San Diego de Alcalá and was located in present-day San Diego. 9 missions. He wasn't out there saying, 'Wow, look He was an indefatigable explorer, organizer and administrator. San Diego Mission. Santa Clara de Asís. This is located in one of the five museums at this mission. Some may find it incongruous to compare the achievements of St. Junípero Serra with those of the founding fathers. San Gabriel Arcángel. Father Serra also suffered from asthma which ultimately led to his death. come up with a benevolent, hard-working person who was strict He was known for his piety, but was also a tireless explorer and a capable administrator. They wouldn't let them leave the missions. Serra is also responsible for the 21 missions that were eventually established. Serra was an 18th century Franciscan friar who founded the first nine missions in California during the era of Spanish colonization. He was beatified in 1988 by Pope John Paul II and canonized in 2015 by Pope Francis . . thought and what he did. He was the head of the Spanish mission in California for many years, and he founded the first eight missions. Sainthood means that the Catholic Church considers the person to be a divine presence in heaven. Two Jesuits had died at the hands of Indians in the revolt of 1734–6. He considered his crowning achievement to be the founding of Mission San Buenaventura in 1782 among the Chumash people of the Santa Barbara Channel. "We know Father Serra's (More information here). Missions were crucial to Spanish plans to hold North America's West coast. Let's whip them into shape.' Learn more about Serra’s life and work. Founded as the eighth mission (of twenty-one) in California by Spanish missionaries in 1777, it was the first named for a woman – Saint Clare of Assisi – and founded by Franciscan friar Junipero Serra to convert the native tribes to Catholicism. Junipero Serra (1713-1784) A priest in the Franciscan order of the Catholic Church, Junipero Serra was a driving force in the Spanish conquest and colonization of what is now the state of California. In 1768, he traveled north to California, and founded a string of missions stretching from San Diego to San Francisco. The California missions he established were hardly perfect institutions. 1782. The second is that the main north-south roadway in Central California and beyond, Highway 101, is the same route that Junipero Serra and his companions blazed, The El Camino Real. He was physically Father Junipero Serra, OFM (1713-1784), acknowledged as the "founder of California", accomplished this by establishing the mission system. not a person who was enslaving Indians, or beating them, ever." Pope John Paul II beatified Serra (made him a candidate for sainthood) in 1988. Over the next fifteen years—covering the American Revolutionary War period—Serra established nine of California’s famous missions, helped lay the foundation for much of its modern economy (including its agriculture and winemaking), and planted the seeds of the Catholic faith for generations to come. Junípero Serra’s lasting legacy is found in the nine missions he established in California between the years 1769 and 1782. This was known as Mission San Diego de Alcalá and was located in present-day San Diego. Their purpose was to provide protection for the settlers and missions. A previous Photo of the Week selection. After fifteen years of toil in Upper California, St. Junipero founded nine missions, including San Gabriel, which was recently burnt down. I think you really Standing on the site of Serra’s former missionary headquarters, the pope reflected on the … It was the pontiff’s first visit to the United States, and the first ever canonization on US soil. One year before he beatified Fray Junípero Serra in 1988, St. John Paul II made a pilgrimage to the grave of the Franciscan priest at Mission San Carlos Borroméo in Carmel, Calif. Streets, parks and mountain peaks all bear his name. the Department of History at the University of San Diego, © 2011-2018 Discover-Central-California.com Serra was an 18th century Franciscan friar who founded the first nine missions in California during the era of Spanish colonization. ". He died in 1784. He was much nicer The first is shown by the posture of the statue - Serra pointing and moving forward. Franciscan priest Father Junipero Serra founded the first mission in 1769. In what way did the Franciscans have a "paternalistic" attitude towards the native Californians? Let's whip them into shape.' Though this mission was founded after the death of Serra by his successor, his influence is still present. While some of that happened after the gold rush in 1849, it began with the mission system that Serra founded. However, he also fought efforts to enslave Indians, and opposed the colonial governor over treatment of the Indians. there, he worked hard, worked 18 hours a day. Pope John Paul II beatified Serra (made him a candidate for sainthood) in 1988. Into the vacuum created by the Jesuits' expulsion from Mexico, stepped Franciscan missionaries. 9 missions. at all these Indians. They wouldn't let them leave the missions. Current status in the Catholic Church: Father Serra has been declared a "blessed" in 1988 which is the step immediately prior to being canonized or declared a "saint". He didn't He was from Majorca in Spain. His life motto was "Siempre adelante y nunca atras", which is "Always go forward and never turn back". Junípero Serra y Ferrer (November 24, 1713 – August 28, 1784) was a Franciscan friar most well known for founding the first 9 California missions. life from the time he was born, where he was trained, what he Whether he was a cruel enslaver of natives or a holy and benevolent evangelizer depends a lot on how one views religion in general and the Catholic Church in particular. How many missions did Junipero Serra found? I'm not sure about the artistic merits of this particular statue in San Mateo County, but it does exhibit two notable truths about Padre Serra. Father Serra, wanting to lessen this bad influence on his native converts, moved this mission from Monterey to its present location in Carmel. The places you are most likely to see a statue of Padre Serra are at any of the 21 missions in California. Serra justified the beating of Indians, treating them as children who needed correction. He was the first president of the California mission system, and personally founded 9 of the 21 missions. Including Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Junípero Serra founded nine missions in Alta California. He converted 5,000 Indians during his life and thousands more converted later due to his heroic apostolate. Soon he was ordered to "Upper" California and made "president" of a new mission. The missions, like the monasteries of the late Middle Ages (which Saint Francis had reacted against in starting his order), became vast properties where tens of thousands of head of cattle, sheep, and goats and massive acres of grapes for wine-making made the friars rich beyond measure. In 1931, California chose Junipero Serra as one of the two subjects that each state is allowed in the statuary hall in the US Capitol building. San Buenaventura Carmel was the second of the 21 missions that Franciscans founded in … Despite all these infirmities, he diligently worked to establish the California missions. With the sole exception of Mission San Antonio, all of the missions became the nucleus of a surrounding or neighboring town. . This monument notes the landing spot in Monterey of the expedition of Junipero Serra and Gaspar de Portola in 1769. The places you are most likely to see a statue of Padre Serra are at any of the 21 missions in California. In what way did Junipero Serra try to combat some of the abuse taking place in the missions? Updated June 19, 2020 Father Junipero Serra is known as the Father of California's Spanish missions. Central California's "Hidden Treasures", "We know Father Serra's The nine missions founded by Junípero Serra in Alta California are: San Diego de Alcalá (1769) There is controversy about Father Serra as well. The next year, Jose de Gálvez, the Spanish inspector-general decided to explore, establish presidios and found missions in Alta California, the area which is now the stat… He converted 5,000 Indians during his life and thousands more converted later due to his heroic apostolate. Serra himself established nine missions, with a total of twenty-one missions eventually being established along the El Camino Real, from San Diego to Sonoma, a distance of 700 miles. Junípero Serra statue at Mission Santa Barbara Junípero Serra y Ferrer (November 24, 1713 – August 28, 1784) was a Franciscan friar most well known for founding the first 9 California missions. San Diego de … 1770. 2013 marks the tercentenary of the birth of this man who, without a doubt, has been the most influential person in the shaping of the state of California. He was much nicer On August 28, 1784, at the age of 70 and after traveling 24,000 miles, Father Junipero Serra died at Mission San Carlos Borromeo and is buried there under the sanctuary floor. . Pilgrimage to the Carmel Mission He didn't However, young soldiers far from home sometimes tend to be "rambunctious". Serra is known as the father of the California Missions, and even California’s founding father. He was physically His attitude was, 'Stay away from the Indians.' Denver Newsroom, Jun 22, 2020 / 03:20 pm (CNA).- In Los Angeles and San Francisco over the weekend, protestors tore down two statues of St. Junipero Serra, an 18th-century Franciscan priest and missionary who they accused of contributing to the destruction of Native American culture through his founding of the first nine of California’s mission churches. Though this mission was founded after the death of Serra by his successor, his influence is still present. Pope John Paul II beatified Serra (made him a candidate for sainthood) in 1988. Father Junípero Serra in a portrait by Father Jose Mosqueda. After fifteen years of toil in Upper California, St. Junipero founded nine missions, including San Gabriel, which was recently burnt down. Early on after arriving in the New World in 1749, he suffered some sort of injury to his leg which continued to plague him throughout his life for the next 35 years. In what way did Junipero Serra try to combat some of the abuse taking place in the missions? Born in Spain, Junípero Serra first traveled to the Americas in 1749 while in his thirties, to work as a Catholic missionary in Mexico. Real estate developer William H. Hannon, to commemorate the founder of the California Missions, placed identical statues at all the missions, schools and other places of historic interest. Junipero Serra went on to establish eight more missions before his death in 1784. Historic Story of Junipero Serra’s Mission For the mission, Father Serra found a fertile and congenial site five miles south of the Monterey presidio, the military installation, along what is now called Rio Road in Carmel. In July 1767, the guardian of the college of San Fernando appointed Serra president of the missions of Baja California, heading a group of 15 Franciscan friars; Francisco Palóu served as his second in command. San Luís Obispo de Tolosa. Serra as Founding Father? Missions founded: San Diego (1769); San Carlos Borromeo or Carmel Mission (1770);  San Antonio de Padua (1771); San Gabriel Arcangel (1771); Mission San Luis Obispo (1772); San Francisco de Asis (1776); San Juan Capistrano (1776); Santa Clara de Asis (1777); San Buenaventura (1782). He was the first president of the California mission system, and personally founded 9 of the 21 missions. September 23, 2015 – Pope Francis canonized Junipero Serra (declared him a saint), in a mass held before 20,000 people at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C. Name taken upon entering the Franciscan Order: Junipero; Juniper was one of St. Francis of Assisi's original companions. ". In 1767, when King Charles III of Spain banished the Jesuits from all Spanish territory, the 14 Jesuit missions in Baja California were suddenly left unstaffed. I will not add to the controversy here. San Diego de Alcalá. 1776. I think you really get along too well with some of the military people, you know. San Francisco de Asís. His energetic nature is shown by his personal motto, “Siempre adelante” (always forward). Father Serra founded 9 of the 21 Franciscan Catholic missions in Alta California (there are also Catholic missions in Baja (Lower) California which is still part of the country of Mexico). Presidios were the military foundations of the Spanish empire. there, he worked hard, worked 18 hours a day. Education: Theology at Lullian University, Palma, Mallorca, Religious Organization: The Franciscan Order of the Catholic Church, Profession: Catholic priest; professor of theology; presidente of the mission system in Baja California (1750-1768); then presidente and founder (1769-1784) of the mission system in Alta California (present day California). (The Indians were not singled out in this regard; friars and soldiers faced similar punishments under Spanish rule.). He became Father-President of the missions after Father Serra. The US Army now occupies this presidio whose founding dates back to that landing. He was a very caring He is thus referred to as "Blessed Junipero Serra". As Junipero and his companions traveled up and down the state, they would note where the conditions were suitable for future foundations: water, soil, proximity to the El Camino Real and population of natives. The Franciscans were asked to take over the missions and Father Serra was assigned as the new Superior of the region. The San Gabriel mission was the fourth mission founded by St. Junípero Serra, a Franciscan priest who founded a trail of missions across California. 1784 At the age of 70, and after traveling 24,000 miles, Father Junípero Serra died at Mission San Carlos Borromeo and is buried there under the sanctuary floor. This is the cenotaph, or empty tomb, of Junipero Serra at the Mission Carmel. Finally, there is a small bear at Serra's feet, signifying the State of California. In what way did the Franciscans have a "paternalistic" attitude towards the native Californians? San Diego, he did not want those Indians punished. In 1768, Serra became head of the missionaries in Baja California, and started the first and only Franciscan mission there. in a lot of his doctrinal leanings and things like that, but This plaque and the statue shown at Mission San Miguel, can be found at 100 locations throughout the state of California. He was a teacher of philosophy in Spain and Mexico in the 1740s. not a person who was enslaving Indians, or beating them, ever. My correspondents’ anger was unrelated to the subject of my article, but was instead inflamed by a mention of Junipero Serra, a canonized Franciscan friar who founded Spanish missions … (Huntington Library) Serra himself established nine missions, with a total of twenty-one missions eventually being established along the El Camino Real, from San Diego to Sonoma, a distance of 700 miles. ", DR. IRIS ENGSTRAND, professor and chair of How many missions did Junipero Serra found? The statue in the photo above is at Mission San Miguel . to the Indians, really, than even to the governors. On August 28, 1784, at the age of 70 and after traveling many thousands of miles by sea and land, Father Junípero Serra died at Mission San Carlos Borromeo and was buried there the next day under the sanctuary floor. thought and what he did. It was 35 years to the day that he left Cadiz, Spain for the missions of the new world. Over the years the El Caminio Real gave way to modern highways, primarily Routes 101 and 82. He was the first president of the California mission system, and personally founded nine of the state's 21 missions. Mission San Juan Capistrano was founded first by Father Lasuen, but it was abandoned and later refounded by Serra. The Franciscans were told to take them over. If you would like an interesting reflection on the controversy, click on my California Missions page here. 1777. San Antonio de Padua (Jolon) 1771. He did show remarkable determination in accomplishing his life's work, both in the Old and New worlds. He wanted Saint Junípero Serra (1713-1784) Serra is known as the father of the California Missions, and even California’s founding father. St. Junipero Serra (1713-84) is a significant name in California’s history. Junípero Serra’s lasting legacy is found in the nine missions he established in California between the years 1769 and 1782. Missions founded by Junípero Serra. Indians who converted to Catholicism were prevent from leaving the mission, and in some cases were made virtual slaves. All Rights Reserved Saint Junipero Serra, Spanish Franciscan priest whose missionary work among the Indians of North America earned him the title of Apostle of California. in a lot of his doctrinal leanings and things like that, but Jesuit priests had developed 13 missions on that long and arid peninsula over seven decades. A statue of Father Junipero Serra stands in front of the San Gabriel Mission in San Gabriel, California on September 23, 2015. The statues are life sized and show the small stature of Serra - he was only 5 feet 2 inches tall. 1769. Saint Junípero Serra (1713-1784) Often called the “father of the California Missions,” Junípero Serra did more than any other man to advance the Catholic church and beliefs in California. Exception of mission San Miguel, can be found at 100 locations throughout the state attest this. 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